Arkema North America has been indicted for fires that released a toxic cloud in the Crosby area and forced an extended community evacuation during Hurricane Harvey.
A Harris County grand jury returned a true bill of indictment on Friday, according to prosecutors.
Plant owners could face a $1 million fine and up to five years in prison if found guilty.
Jurors are given the latitude to decide if the matter is a misdemeanor or a felony.
"The Arkema facility was not prepared for such heavy rainfall and flooding," the Chemical Safety Board said when it released its final report on the explosion in May.